Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2008. Majors are required to take the Undergraduate Seminar, preferably in the junior year. The History of Japan, pp. Modern Japanese thought meanwhile developed under strong Western influences such as the study of Western Sciences (Rangaku) and the modernist Meirokusha intellectual society which drew from European enlightenment thought and promoted liberal reforms as well as Western philosophies like Liberalism and Utilitarianism. [52][53], Some of the most important elements of Jain philosophy are the jain theory of karma, the doctrine of nonviolence (ahiṃsā) and the theory of "many-sidedness" or Anēkāntavāda. [57]:8 Key innovative concepts include the four noble truths as an analysis of dukkha, anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-self).[iv][58]. Perez, Louis G. (1998). These include concepts such as dhárma, karma, pramāṇa, duḥkha, saṃsāra and mokṣa. is there a god? After graduation, philosophy majors go to law school, to medical school, to business school, to seminary, and to graduate school in a range of fields from art business to education to gender studies to philosophy; they go to work for business consulting firms and for humanitarian non-government organizations; they take jobs as technical writers, teachers, web designers…. Another widely shared concept was that of orenda ('spiritual power'). [14][15] Other notable subfields include philosophy of science, political philosophy, aesthetics, philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind. This period saw the development of Scholasticism, a text critical method developed in medieval universities based on close reading and disputation on key texts. The Tattvartha Sutra is the earliest known, most comprehensive and authoritative compilation of Jain philosophy.[54][55]. Native American communities, there is a belief in a metaphysical principle called the 'Great Spirit' (Siouan: wakȟáŋ tȟáŋka; Algonquian: gitche manitou). These schools of thought further developed during the Han (206 BCE – 220 CE) and Tang (618–907 CE) eras, forming new philosophical movements like Xuanxue (also called Neo-Taoism), and Neo-Confucianism. Some modern African thinkers have been influenced by Marxism, African-American literature, Critical theory, Critical race theory, Postcolonialism and Feminism. Philosophy majors tend to have a reputation for being pretentious. The dominant Buddhist philosophical traditions in East Asian nations are mainly based on Indian Mahayana Buddhism. [36] They also reflect a tolerance for a diversity of philosophical interpretations within Hinduism while sharing the same foundation. Duran, Jane. Philosophy majors often work closely with faculty members, collaborating on research projects and even co-authoring published papers. At its core the study of metaphysics is the study of the nature of reality, of what exists in the world, what it is like, and how it is ordered. A philosophy major is good for teaching you how to address challenging questions like these. [57]:37 Following the Abhidharma schools, Indian Mahayana philosophers such as Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu developed the theories of śūnyatā ('emptiness of all phenomena') and vijñapti-matra ('appearance only'), a form of phenomenology or transcendental idealism. [69], Although men have generally dominated philosophical discourse, women philosophers have engaged in the discipline throughout history. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: While our knowledge of the ancient era begins with Thales in the 6th century BCE, little is known about the philosophers who came before Socrates (commonly known as the pre-Socratics). The problem is that whatever the source of justification may be, that source must either be without justification (in which case it must be treated as an arbitrary foundation for belief), or it must have some further justification (in which case justification must either be the result of circular reasoning, as in coherentism, or the result of an infinite regress, as in infinitism).[82]. Of the two general introductory courses, 150.111 Philosophic Classics and 150.112 Philosophic Problems, only one may count toward the major, and no more than two 100-level courses in total may count toward the major.

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