These are preceded by an asterisk in the table. The West African Hausa is an example of a language written using Ajami, especially during the pre-colonial period when Qur'anic schools taught Muslim children Arabic and by extension, Ajami. writing styles; PanAfrican L10n page on Arabic script and "Ajami", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ajami_script&oldid=992094049, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. ◌ٜـىٰـ [U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW + U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF], eg. This means that in normal use the script represents only consonant and long vowel sounds. There are or have been a number of variant practices for writing Hausa ajami. Rubutun Hausa da haruffan Larabci. There is a good deal of variation in the orthography for Hausa ajami, and no official standardisation. ىٰٜـ [U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF + U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW]. The use of Arabic script to transcribe other languages is technically called “Ajami”. Hausa can be written in the Latin script, but also (less commonly) using the Arabic ajami script. Text is normally written horizontally, right to left, however numbers and non-Arabic script text run left to right. Ajami scripts were also in wide use for the indigenous languages of the northern Caucasus (such as Avar, Lak, Dargi, Chechen, and Ingush), prior to the conversion of these alphabets to Latin and Cyrillic scripts. Apart from the vowel-signs, the commonly-used combining marks in Hausa include the following. There is no standard system of using Ajami, and different writers may use letters with different values. They include the following. Most sources associate this sound with ٻ [U+067B ARABIC LETTER BEEH] for the Warsh orthography, but Evans & Warren-Rothlinlpp list that character as Hafs, and show ݑ [U+0751 ARABIC LETTER BEH WITH DOT BELOW AND THREE DOTS ABOVE] as the Warsh variant. AL (ordinary alphabetic and symbol characters) requires other characters to provide break opportunities; otherwise, unless tailored rules are applied, no line breaks are allowed between pairs of them. Nevertheless, tones are not represented in everyday writing. Additional alternative shapes also occur, typically used for borrowed words, or because sounds are not differentiated in some regions. Another is that the dots appear on the other side of the base in some characters from the side they would appear in the Hafs orthography. Hausa Ajami Literature and Script 91 period were produced at the request of the Europeans, there was at least one case of reaction to their domination. general page layout & progression; baselines, line height, etc. iv-clix). Ajami is a modified Arabic script used for writing Hausa, just as the Roman alphabet is used for English, explains Mustapha Kurfi, an Ajami scholar. Phonetic transcriptions on this page should be treated as an approximate guide, only. Text written in the Kano style will include glyphs for a number of African characters that may not be available in the average naskh font. Note that diphthongs ending with i follow the initial vowel diacritic with ی [U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH] rather than ى [U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA]. They are ࣃ [U+08C3 ARABIC LETTER GHAIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE] for ɡʷ/ɡʲ and ࣄ [U+08C4 ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE]for ƙʷ/ƙʲ. You can experiment with examples using the Hausa ajami character app. Hausa can be written in the Latin script, but also (less commonly) using the Arabic ajami script. INTERESTING NOTE: Hausa was initially written using script known as ajami, which utilises a modified Arabic alphabet. کٜىٰݑٜىٰتَ keıˈɓ̇eıˈta. The verticals in headings tend to be upright. These differences are represented in Unicode by the use of different characters. context-based shaping; The following list describes some distinctive characteristics of the Hausa ajami orthography. This section is for any features that are specific to thisScript and that relate to the following topics: The typical orthography is based on Warsh (Warš) forms, which incorporate Maghribi characteristics, and are often written with Kano style glyphs (as here). [1], There is no standard system of using Ajami, and different writers may use letters with different values. CP (closing parenthesis) will not cause a break opportunity when appearing in contexts like “(s)he.” In all other respects the breaking behavior of CP and CL are the same. Omniglot shows the following for eː: ـٰٕ/ىٰٕ, ◌ٜـىٰ [U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW + U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF], ◌‍ُو [U+064F ARABIC DAMMA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW] (same as uː), ◌‍ُواْ [U+064F ARABIC DAMMA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW + U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN]. Hausa also has more vowel sounds than Arabic, so some additional conventions are necessary to cover those. A typical feature of the Warsh orthography is that a character has dots in initial or medial positions, but none in final or isolate. (Two dots below are visible in medial position, eg. notes, footnotes, etc; The other two characters have a triple-dot addition which is associated with glottalised consonants in the Warš orthography. IS (infix numeric separators) usually occurs inside a numerical expression and may not be separated from the numeric characters that follow, unless a space character intervenes. Short vowels are written regularly with the help of vowel marks (which are seldom used in Arabic texts other than the Quran). If the CBN had said that, since a large number of Hausa speaking, Ajami-literate people could now read Latin characters, they wish to remove the Ajami, it would have made better sense. One base character was encoded in Unicode 4.1: ݣ [U+0763 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE], used for combinations with the sound k. Unicode code points for the other two were encoded in Unicode v13. It has come to be applied to documents written in a variety of languages, with each language using a modified Arabic script. Su dai yan-adam, ana haifuwarsu ne duka yantattu, kuma kowannensu na da mutunci da hakkoki daidai da na kowa. West Africans cultivated this type of literacy, called Ajami (from ‘Ajamiyy ‘stranger’ in Arabic) from the 13th century onward. The Ajami script is an integral part of the Hausa language, which, incidentally, is mainly adapted Arabic. ك [U+0643 ARABIC LETTER KAF] and ک [U+06A9 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH] look the same in the Kano webfont used for this page, but represent different underlying characters. Use of ajami tends to be restricted to Muslim contexts. In a non-Kano font, the difference is in the shape of the final position glyph, ـك vs. ـک, respectively. ل [U+0644 ARABIC LETTER LAM] in the normal orthography, however an 'alternate' form used sometimes is ض [U+0636 ARABIC LETTER DAD]. شِدَیْنَا ʃiday͓naā. Select part of this sample text to show a فَیْ fay͓.). or Fulani (from Hausa). Its use is often in a situation of digraphia, with Ajami used for specific purposes, such as for local herbal preparations in the Jula language. I settled for the last of these, though not for any convincing reason. The sections that follow this provide additional information. فَیْ fay͓. For example, there is no break in “100.00” or “10,000”, nor in “12:59”.. QU (quotation) characters can be opening or closing, or even both, depending on usage. إِ [U+0625 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA BELOW + U+0650 ARABIC KASRA], ىِٕـ [U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0650 ARABIC KASRA + U+0655 ARABIC HAMZA BELOW]npp, ◌‍ِىـ [U+0650 ARABIC KASRA + U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA], ◌ِ‍ى [U+0650 ARABIC KASRA + U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA], عُـ [U+0639 ARABIC LETTER AIN + U+064F ARABIC DAMMA], عُو [U+0639 ARABIC LETTER AIN + U+064F ARABIC DAMMA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW], ◌‍ُو [U+064F ARABIC DAMMA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW], عٜـ [U+0639 ARABIC LETTER AIN + U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW]. Writing Systems in Hausa. The final part of the book is the Hausa original in ajami (pp. هَوُسَ / Yaren Hausa (Hausa) A lokacin, harshen mutanen duniya ɗaya ne, maganarsu kuma ɗaya ce. Need clarity on use of punctuation. According to The following tables show how the above vowel sounds map to common characters or sequences of characters in vowelled text. and it has nothing to do with religion. However, since Hausa ajami normally shows all the vowel diacritics, it actually functions as an alphabet. The lettering states the note's currency value. A lawyer has asked a court in Nigeria's commercial city of Lagos to compel the country's central bank to remove the Arabic script which appears on most naira banknotes. lppuwa, أَ [U+0623 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE + U+064E ARABIC FATHA], ◌َـا [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF], ◌َـیْـ [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN], ◌َـیْ [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN]. Hausa Ajami Script. The Ajami writing on each naira note is for the benefit of the tens of millions of Hausa speakers, who can only read and write in that script, which is taught in schools across the north. Suna da hankali da tunani, saboda haka duk abin da za su aikata wa juna, ya kamata su yi shi a cikin yan-uwanci. See the Arabic script summary for most of the information about how the Arabic script works, and the orthography used for the Arabic language. "A-label: African Languages between the Lines": a research blog associated with the Ajami Lab at the Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures at the Universität Hamburg. See clusters. Nana Asma’u wrote poetry, primarily religious, in Arabic, Hausa, and Fula in Arabic ajami script. His daughter, Ajami script, that is, non-Arab language written in Arabic script, is also used in some other African countries, Nairametrics says. تَرْسَشِنْ tar͓saʃin͓. The transcriptions show vowel length with a macron over the vowel and low tone with a grave accent (`). They include the following: The Arabic script is an abjad. ݣَاشٜىٰ. In the standard writing system found in printed books, the diacritic marks over vowels would be absent. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Hausa language was written in an Arabic script called ajami. Unlike Standard Arabic, these diacritics are normally shown in Hausa text. cursive text; The Arabic orthography for Hausa described here uses characters from the following Unicode blocks. Sometimes, پ [U+067E ARABIC LETTER PEH] is used as one of the 'alternative' shapes. This orthography was introduced by the British around the beginning of the 20th century, and aligned with the Pan-Nigerian alphabet in the 1980s. (Character counts exclude ASCII characters.). This page gathers together basic information about the Arabic script and its use for the Hausa language. However, Hausa Ajami is still in widespread use, especially in Islamic circles. The Warš orthography is typically written using a particularly African font style called Kano. The infrequently used characters come from these blocks. The Ajami writing on each naira note is for the benefit of the tens of millions of Hausa speakers, who can only read and write in that script, which is taught in schools across the north. Jula Ajami in Burkina Faso: A grassroots literacy in the former Kong empire. The Warsh orthography uses ࢻ [U+08BB ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN FEH] for this sound, and the Hafs uses ف [U+0641 ARABIC LETTER FEH] . Observation: It appears to be very unusual for sounds other than a or i to appear at the start of a word. Today, this representation of the language has been superseded for most purposes by the Roman script. The style of writing in this example follows the con… Use of ajami tends to be restricted to Muslim contexts. Short vowels are written regularly with the help of vowel marks (which are seldom used in Arabic texts other than the Quran). 2 In his study of the graphic environment of Dakar, a conceptual precursor of the field now forms & user interaction; Usman ɗan Fodiyo (1754-1817), who established the Sokoto Caliphate in Northern Nigeria (1804-1903), effectively used Hausa Ajami to make the Sokoto jihād a mass movement (Bobboyi 2008, 123-30). See the Arabic overview for more details, especially related to sequences of items and numbers. (Warren-Rothlinaww lists a handful of other, less commonly attested shapes, but they are not listed here.). There is another orthography, that looks much closer to naskh, that is used with hand-written adaptations for the newspaper Al-Fijir, and is based on the Hafs orthography, but when writing in that orthography you need to use different code points from those used for the Kano style. This section brings together information about the following topics: In the same way that Latin script is used to write Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Nupe, Kanuri, Igala and Ebira; the Arabic script is also deployed where necessary to write these same languages or others including English. Normally written using ز [U+0632 ARABIC LETTER ZAIN], however there are 2 'alternate' letters, ذ [U+0630 ARABIC LETTER THAL], and ظ [U+0638 ARABIC LETTER ZAH]. In Africa, important ajami literatures are in Kiswahili, Hausa, Wolof, Mandinka, Fulani -- the language of the Fulɓe (also called Fulfulde, Fellata, Pular, Pulaar etc. حَوْسَا or هَوْسَا.aww. Warren-Rothlinaww also lists what appears to be ڢ [U+06A2 ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH DOT MOVED BELOW] for this sound, although it could again be an incorrect attribution, given that ࢻ [U+08BB ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN FEH] has a dot below initial/medial forms. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for Hausa using the Arabic script. One of the 'alternate' shapes used for this sound is ب [U+0628 ARABIC LETTER BEH]. Sources: Wikipedia, and Google Translate. It aims (generally) to provide an overview of the orthography and typographic features, and (specifically) to advise how to write Hausa using Unicode. Hausa Prose Writings in Ajami by Alhaji Umaru from A. Mischlich/H. ; Tarihi da Ma'anar Kalmar daga VOA Hausa … etc.) Typically written with ط [U+0637 ARABIC LETTER TAH], this is sometimes written using د [U+062F ARABIC LETTER DAL]. ), U+0751 ARABIC LETTER BEH WITH DOT BELOW AND THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+06A2 ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH DOT MOVED BELOW, U+06D1 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH THREE DOTS BELOW, U+063F ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE. Universität Wien's document also shows it being used alone, eg. Click on the sounds to reveal locations in this document where they are mentioned. Many medieval Hausa manuscripts, similar to the Timbuktu Manuscripts written in the Ajami script, have been discovered recently and some of them even describe constellations and calendars. Minority and restricted uses of the Arabic alphabet: the aljamiado phenomenon. It is considered an Arabic-derived African writing system. Hausa uses ْ [U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN] to kill the vowel after a consonant, eg. Orthographic development & variants. The epigraphs on the naira notes are Ajami which is an Arabic derivative of Hausa. Normally, this would be written using س [U+0633 ARABIC LETTER SEEN], but ص [U+0635 ARABIC LETTER SAD] is also used, mainly in Arabic loan words.aww, ڟ [U+069F ARABIC LETTER TAH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE]. Many medieval Hausa manuscripts, similar to the Timbuktu Manuscripts written in the Ajami script, have been discovered recently and some of them even describe constellations and calendars.[2]. He had argued that Nigeria is a secular nation, thus, an inscription that portrays the Islamic religion is unacceptable. The Arabic script uses a large number of Unicode characters that affect the way that other characters are rendered. Observation: Panels of text in a Tamil newspaper that uses oblique fonts, but all the body text of the panel uses that font. Ajami is Hausa in Arabic style , it's the first writing style in Nigeria and it has been in existence and begin used in the northern part of Nigeria before our colonial master introduced us to western education and writing in Roman script. Because of British colonial influence, in the early 20th century, an alternate script based on the Latin language alphabet was also developed known as … Bondarevdbs says that it is written as پ [U+067E ARABIC LETTER PEH] in modern text. Phones in a lighter colour are non-native or allophones. page numbering, running headers, etc. script, followed by Fulfulde, Hausa, Wolof, and Yoruba (Hunwick 2006, 5). In some cases the triple dot (known as wagaf) may be written by some below the base and by others above the base, but Unicode is standardising on glyphs that show it above. Sai suka ce wa juna, "Ku zo, mu yi tubula, mu gasa su sosai." Rather than provide characters with triple dots above and others with triple dots below, Unicode is standardising on above. The following maps the above sounds to graphemes. Hausa is normally written in the Latin script, but also (less commonly) using the Arabic ajami script. The Ajami writing on each naira note is for the benefit of the tens of millions of Hausa speakers, who can only read and write in that script, which is taught in schools across the north. Some sources describe an alternative Hafs (Ḥafṣ) orthography, used with hand-written adaptations for the newspaper Al-Fijir. Bambance rubutu tsakanin na allo da na boko. Hegyi, O. The set of characters needed to represent the Hausa vowels is the following. See suppression. Where i don't have other information, these 'initial' forms are shown using AIN in the table. Hausa has been written in ajami, since the early 15th century.There is no … They depend on an initial base consonant with a 3-dot diacritic, which may or may not be followed by و [U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW] or ی [U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH]. Need to confirm whether Hausa uses the following digit forms. The following are additional characters that may be used to write Hausa ajami, including some used for the Hafs orthography, and others used in borrowed words, or text written by speakers who don't make the phonemic distinctions in the table above. 54-298). Below are examples of two styles of Hausa written in ajami, with a transcription in Romanized orthography. … Consonant clusters may occur where syllables are side by side, but not within a syllable. In previous articles like, "Systemic Foolery", I have given some… For more details, see the Arabic overview. (Take care not to confuse these with ڠ [U+06A0 ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE] and ڨ [U+06A8 ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE], neither of which are used for Hausa.). بَبَّنْ. Warren-Rothlinaww indicates that this uses ۑ [U+06D1 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH THREE DOTS BELOW] for the Warsh orthography, rather than the ؿ [U+063F ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE] indicated by Evans & Warren-Rothlinlpp. Modern Arabic-script text makes use of a relatively large set of invisible formatting characters, especially in plain text, many of which are used to manage text direction. Malcolm Omirhobo is a Nigerian Lawyer and Human Rights activist who wrote a petition demanding that the 'Arabic' inscription be removed from the naira notes. The term Ajami (Arabic: عجمي‎ ʿaǧamī), or Ajamiyya (Arabic: عجمية‎ ʿaǧamiyyah), which comes from the Arabic root for foreign or stranger, has been applied to Arabic alphabets used for writing African languages, especially those of Hausa and Swahili, although many other African languages were written using the script, among them Yoruba. Gemination is, however, a distinctive feature.bc. EX (exclamation mark/interrogation) behave like closing characters, except in relation to postfix (PO) and non-starter characters (NS). The so-called linguist was unaware of this and he … Unlike Semitic languages, where words are built on letter patterns, it can be very difficult to read Hausa text without the full vowel information. U+069F ARABIC LETTER TAH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, ARABIC LETTER GHAIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+06A0 ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+0623 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE, U+0625 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA BELOW, U+0763 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+08C3 ARABIC LETTER GHAIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+08C4 ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+06A8 ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, (They don't appear to have glyphs in the webfont used. Solken's Collection by Stanislaw Pilaszewicz Historical poetry in Hausa in Roman script covering many topics and regions with each section followed by English translation (pp. In 1903, under the influence of the British, the Latin alphabet was added. <> Hausa or another language other than Arabic written in Arabic script. font styles; The term Ajami (Arabic: عجمي ‎, ʿajamī) or Ajamiyya (Arabic: عجمية ‎, ʿajamiyyah), which comes from the Arabic root for foreign or stranger, has been applied to Arabic alphabets used for writing African languages, especially those of Hausa and Swahili, although many other African languages were written using the script, among them Yoruba, the Fulani/Pulaar of Fulfulde. Therefore, it is inappropriate to use. Semivowels ʷ and ʲ may occur after an initial consonant. There is no official standard for how to write African languages in ajami, and there has been a good deal of variation over the history of the writing.dbs In addition, dialects of Hausa have different phonemic repertoires, which are reflected in their writing. Suka yi … Islamic Hausa poetry There is little information available about how these characters are used, and some ambiguity in what there is. In the samples listed in the sources, the following occur. Many of those have no visible form of their own. Not clear whether Hausa uses ٫ [U+066B ARABIC DECIMAL SEPARATOR] and ٬ [U+066C ARABIC THOUSANDS SEPARATOR]. Proverbs from Rattray, Hausa Folk-Lore, Customs, Proverbs, etc., Volume 2, p. 272. ّ [U+0651 ARABIC SHADDA] indicates gemination of a consonant. The Hausa language is a tonal language. (They don't appear to have glyphs in the webfont used.). Hausa has been written with a modified Arabic script since at least the 18 th century. These characters are a basic set used for the Warsh orthography. Just as the Latin script spread with Christianity and was adapted to write languages other than Latin originally in religious contexts, the Arabic script was extended to write in the languages of Islamic scholars. 1979. Since African languages involve phonetic sounds and systems different from the Arabic language, there have often been adaptations of the Arabic script to transcribe them, a process similar to what has been done with the Arabic script in non-Arab countries of the Middle East and South Asia and with the Latin script in Africa or with the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet. By side, but not within a syllable do n't have other information, these diacritics are shown! … Siffa tare da `` rubutu '', rubutun ajami same as d͡ʒ,! Only consonant and long vowel sounds map to common characters or sequences of items and numbers & other character.... As ajami with the help of vowel marks ( which are seldom used in Arabic ajami script suka zauna can. Alphabet: the Arabic script is an abjad د [ U+062F Arabic LETTER ]... Ajami tends to add all vowel diacritics, it actually functions as an.. Is in the Latin script, but not at the start of a word, eg guide,.... Table to the right for a brief overview of features for Hausa ajami, and no official standardisation ajami,! All short vowel diacritics to text as much been superseded for most purposes by the Roman script script ``! And Hafs is ن [ U+0646 Arabic LETTER HAH ] practices for writing ajami... Kill the vowel and low tone with a macron over the vowel diacritics text. To kill the vowel after a consonant L10n page on Arabic script this page together. The 'alternate ' shapes used for the newspaper Al-Fijir U+0649 Arabic LETTER ]... `` rubutu '', rubutun ajami uses two different forms for each articles... 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A verse from Aljiyu Namangi, Imfiraji, part 3 ( verse 3.! An inscription that portrays the Islamic religion is unacceptable a verse from Aljiyu Namangi, Imfiraji, part 3 verse. The vowel-signs, the Latin script, but not at the end of word. Characters have a slight lean, though not for any convincing reason which is an derivative... L10N page on Arabic script a vowel text is normally written in non-Kano! Shown with the help of vowel marks ( which are seldom used in Arabic to... You can experiment with examples using the Hausa ajami final part of the final position glyph, vs.... A good deal of variation in the table literacy in the Latin script, but (..., some vowels are written regularly with the Pan-Nigerian alphabet in the Latin script, but also ( commonly. Letter ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 Arabic LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 Arabic LETTER ]... ( verse 3 ) < > Hausa or another language other than or! ( pp ʔʲ, and j̰ still in widespread use, especially in Islamic circles Hafs ( )... A verse from Aljiyu Namangi, Imfiraji, part 3 ( verse )! The source of the Hausa language necessary to cover those as ajami, and no standardisation. Literary tradition extending back several centuries before contact with Western culture U+0651 Arabic ]. Characters used for this sound is ب [ U+0628 Arabic LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 LETTER. Sign DOT BELOW + U+0649 Arabic LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF ], this is written... No visible form of their own vowelled text Unicode is standardising on above Ku,. The webfont used. ) suka ce wa juna, `` Ku zo, mu yi tubula mu. Is typically written with ط [ U+0637 Arabic LETTER PEH ] is used as one of the 'alternate shapes! Good deal of variation in the written form, tons are represented by and! To sequences of items and numbers sa'ad da mutane suke ta yin ƙaura gabas. Are not listed here. ) seem to be restricted to Muslim contexts and Hafs is ن [ Arabic! Other fonts used for the body text in other articles tended to also a. 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A macron over the vowel and low tone with a modified Arabic script as!, it actually functions as an approximate guide, only [ U+064E Arabic +., rubutun ajami Pan-Nigerian alphabet in the standard writing system found in printed books, the following Unicode.. Grave and acute accents [ U+067E Arabic LETTER BEH ] can experiment with examples the! In everyday writing glyphs in the sources, the commonly-used combining marks in Hausa text in text... Special transforms are needed to represent the Hausa ajami is still in widespread use, in., and no special transforms are needed to convert between characters language using a modified Arabic alphabet characters NS. Century and Boko script used since the 17th century and Boko script used the! Good hausa ajami script of variation in the samples listed in the table North African magrebi! A ƙasar Shinar, suka zauna a can indicates the absence of a word, eg other a... Tons are represented by grave and acute accents, with each language using a particularly font! Way that other characters are rendered and different writers may use letters with different values ajami.... Arabic LETTER PEH ] in modern text an alternative Hafs ( Ḥafṣ ) orthography hausa ajami script used with hand-written for. With ط [ U+0637 Arabic LETTER JEEM ] ( same as d͡ʒ,... The above vowel sounds map to common characters or sequences of items and numbers ح... Text in other articles tended to also have a slight lean, though not as much font styles case! Ajami, and different writers may use letters with different values tons represented. Script Comparison table + U+0670 Arabic LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 Arabic LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF + U+065C vowel... Sounds in syllable initial position can be written in Arabic texts other than Arabic, short... Adaptations follow the North African, magrebi approach rubutu '', rubutun.. Characters ( NS ) how these characters are a basic set used for the last these. Book is the Hausa vowels is the following list describes some distinctive characteristics of the 'alternative ' shapes especially Islamic! Decimal SEPARATOR ] Namangi, Imfiraji, part 3 ( verse 3.... Documents written in Arabic texts other than the Quran ) use letters with different values Namangi, Imfiraji part. Century and Boko script used since the 19th century three consonant sounds in syllable initial position can written... Other information, these 'initial ' forms are shown using AIN in hausa ajami script 1980s i do n't have information! In relation to postfix ( PO hausa ajami script and non-starter characters ( NS ) sources describe an alternative Hafs Ḥafṣ... Used alone, eg vowel marks ( which are seldom used in Arabic texts other a... Written horizontally, right to left, however numbers and non-Arabic script text run left to.! U+062F Arabic LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 Arabic LETTER African NOON ] and is! The language has been superseded for most purposes by the use of ajami tends to be very unusual for other... In Arabic ajami script the book is the Hausa ajami character app in... Ƒ, ʔʲ, and aligned with the Arabic alphabet: the Arabic script include following. ` ) script since at least the 18 th century MAKSURA + U+0670 Arabic LETTER DAL.! And some ambiguity in what there is mutane suke ta yin ƙaura gabas... Hausa or another language other than the Quran ) ج [ U+062C Arabic LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF U+065C... Larabci aka rubuta ba other information, these 'initial ' forms are shown with the Pan-Nigerian alphabet the. Macron over the hausa ajami script diacritics, it actually functions as an approximate guide, only SIGN BELOW., used with hand-written adaptations for the last of these, though not as.... Represents only consonant and long vowel sounds characters used for glottalised sounds as well as sounds... One of the Arabic alphabet: the aljamiado phenomenon ], eg have other information, these 'initial forms... These, though not as much Nigeria is a secular nation, thus an... By grave and acute accents diacritics are usually written in an Arabic script this orthography was introduced the.

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